HINDI - URDU LANGUAGE ACQUISITION WORLDWIDE
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HINDI - URDU
Hindi-Urdu is an Indo-Aryan language and the lingua franca of North India and Pakistan.It is also known as Hindi, Urdu, Hindustani. It derives primarily from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi, western Uttar Pradesh and southern Uttarakhand region, and incorporates a large vocabulary from Sanskrit, Persian, Arabic and Turkic.
It is a pluricentric language, with two official forms, Standard Hindi and Standard Urdu, which are standardized registers of it. However, colloquial Hindi and Urdu are all but indistinguishable, and even the official standards are nearly identical in grammar, though they differ in literary conventions and in academic and technical vocabulary, with Urdu retaining stronger Persian, Central Asian and Arabic influences, and Hindi relying more heavily on Sanskrit.
Before the Partition of British India, the terms Hindustani, Urdu and Hindi were synonymous; all covered what would be called Urdu and Hindi today. The term 'Hindustani' is also used for several divergent dialects of the Hindi languages spoken outside of the Subcontinent, including Fijian Hindustani and the Caribbean Hindustani of Suriname and Trinidad.
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi, High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardised and sanskritised register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi (and the surrounding western Uttar Pradesh and southern Uttarakhand region). The primary official language of the Republic of India, it is one of the 22 official languages of India.
The spoken Hindi dialects form an extensive dialect continuum of the Indic language family, bounded on the northwest and west by Punjabi, Sindhi, Gujarati and Marathi; on the southeast by Oriya; on the east by Maithili and Bengali; and on the north by Nepali.
Urdu is a Central Indo-Aryan language and a register of the Hindustani language that is linguistically identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. It is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also largely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an official language of five states.